Presentations are often the major form of communications during systems development. They are also the major exposure that the developers have with the organizational management. The confidence and credibility of the staff are usually developed and convey to the organization during these sessions. It is, therefore, critical that the best possible impression of quality is presented at these sessions.

9.1 Purpose

The design of a presentation depends on the purpose of the meeting. The formality, the types of visuals, and the extent of preparation all are determined by the nature of the meeting. The purpose of the presentation should be explicitly identified and shared with those organizing the presentation.

9.1.1 General Goals

Every presentation has general goals or objectives that need to be met. The process of identify these goals is highly useful in planning and evaluating presentations. Credibility

An underlying purpose of all presentations is to increase and maintain the credibility of the speakers. Credibility is enhanced by being an effective speaker. However, any item that detracts from the quality of the presentation will adversely effect the perceived credibility of the speaker. An excellent presentation is one that enhances the credibility of the speaker. Impact

The second general purpose of any presentation is to produce an impact on the organization. This impact may be implicit, in announcing that a project has reached a given level, or explicit in requesting a decision by management. In either case, a purpose of most presentations is to make an impact on the audience. Engage

A third general purpose is to engage the audience. In order for the presentation to have impact, it must be meaningful to the audience. In this regard, the audience is a group of individuals. The presentation must bring each member of the audience into the process of the presentation. Compel

The forth-general purpose is to compel action. All presentations imply some type of action, even if only the future positive evaluation of the speaker or spreading the word (word-of-mouth communications) within the organization. The action that we wish the audience to take is the bottom- line of the presentation.

9.1.2 Specific Goals

Beyond these general purposes, presentations have specific goals. Each goal should be written during the planning of the presentation. The goal of the presentation must be tailored to the type of meeting being planned.

9.1.3 Exceeding Expectations

The objectives of quality apply as well to giving presentations as they do to other aspects of business: "Consistently exceed the audience's reasonable expectations". Meaningful

The presentation must be meaningful to the audience. The title must match the content of the presentation. The language and terminology used must match that understood by the audience. And finally the subject covered must be of importance to the audience. Effective

The presentation should be well prepared with clear objectives. This requires the speaker's respect and understanding of the audience. To engage the audience and compel action, the presentation must be effective. Entertaining

Any good presentation should be a "pleasure" to attend. In this regard, the presentation should be entertaining. We live in an "entertaining" world where communications overload requires the use of creativity in order to be heard. In order to maintain attention, the presentation process must be entertaining without detracting from the purpose of the talk.

9.2 Organization

Organization is critical for tight, quality, presentations. All the elements of the presentation should be outlined and the order of the presentation should follow a natural, efficient logic. The presentation should be structured for maximum impact and meeting the stated purpose of the session.

9.2.1 Limiting Concepts

Only a limited number of ideas can be retained by the audience during any session. The maximum number is likely to be less than 7 concepts for any length talk. Shorter talks further limit the concepts. 1 Concept/5 Minutes

As a general rule, introduce a maximum of one concept for every five minutes of a presentation. However, the more concepts that are presented, the less impact each will have. "Chunking" of Knowledge

The art of organization is the grouping of information and knowledge into "chunks" or concepts. The concepts that are presented represent sets of information that can be handled as a unit. These overall concepts are what the audience is expected to remember from the presentation. The supporting information which goes into the chunk is intended to convey confidence in the value of the concept but is not expected to be remembered.

9.2.2 Respect of the Audience

A speaker must understand and respect the audience in order to prepare and deliver an effective presentation. Never Under- estimate

Never underestimate the intelligence of the audience. If they are bright enough to attend your presentation, they are bright enough to understand it. If they can't, assume the presentation was poorly designed. Always Inform

However, never overestimate their knowledge of the topics to be covered. You will never go wrong in defining technical and some not-so technical terms. Avoid jargon at all costs because you shouldn't assume everyone in the audience is familiar with all such terms.

9.2.3 Summarize

All presentations are a teaching process. Repetition is a key tool for teaching. It is critical that messages and concepts be repeated several times during the presentation in terms that the audience will understand. The three things that are critical during a presentation are:
  • Tell them what you are going to say;
  • Tell it to them;
  • Tell them what you told them. Introduction

During the introduction, summarize the concepts that you expect the audience to retain. This prepares the audience for these concepts and gives them an agenda for the talk. The concepts should be presented in the order that they will be presented. Final Summary

The final summary should recap the concepts presented followed by the request, if appropriate, for audience action.

9.3 Preparation

The presentation should be fully prepared. Occasionally, talks have to be presented with little preparations. However, these "winged" talks should be the exception. Quality presentations are usually fully prepared.

9.3.1 Use an Outline

Use an outline. Visuals are often prepared directly from the outline. The outline or the visuals can be used as a guide during the presentation.

9.3.2 Written Presentations

Written presentations are typically used by senior management for public talks. This is usually necessary since the presentations are normally not prepared by the speaker. A great deal of skill is needed to be able to read a speech in a credible fashion. Unless there is a policy or legal reason for doing so, presentations should not be read.

9.3.3 Do's and Don'ts

It is useful to construct a checklist of those things that should be in the presentation and those that must be avoided. Politically Correct

Things that are politically correct are "hot buttons" of the audience. There are things that should be included and those that must not be. Politically incorrect topics are like land mines which, when activated, blow the presentation apart. Unless the issue is central to the presentation, they should be avoided. Gender Correct

It has become politically correct to avoid gender specific pronouns and comments. Unfortunately, common English usage tends to make elaborate avoidance cumbersome. An approach is to avoid pronouns in charts. It is useful to screen charts with an individual sensitive to this issue. Audience Correct

There are generally positive and negative issues that speakers need to be sensitive to. Obvious ones cover ethnic differences and competitive and business situations. Threats of losing jobs, even as a joke, go over poorly when the threat is perceived to be real.

There are also internal and historical issues that need to be understood. Take time to understand and cover these issues with someone who is familiar with the audience. On Being Provocative

While provocation is useful to raise the energy of the audience and gain attention, it is highly dangerous. It is likely to break down an engagement and encourage dialogues among the audience or challenges to the speaker. Provocation, therefore, should be avoided. Only under conditions when the speaker is powerful enough and there is sufficient time to regain control should provocation be attempted at all. The Unmeant Insult

Be careful not to insult the audience. Have your presentation reviewed by someone knowledgeable of the particular nature of the audience. Usually, the speaker is very surprised when the audience is insulted. Such surprises reflect the speaker's poor planning and lack of understanding of the audience. Off-Topic

Off-topic, sidebars, and excursions can greatly distract from the objectives of the presentation. Furthermore, they tend to reduce the "power" of the speaker. The more focus the presentation has, the easier it is to maintain position. Furthermore, off-topic subjects tend to invite questions in areas that the speaker is not prepared to address. Jargon

Jargon is terminology, acronyms and contractions that are unique to a field or organization. They should be avoided, particularly for "mixed" audiences where it is known that some individuals are likely to be unfamiliar with them. If they are essential in such cases, a list of key terms should be posted. Inside Terms

Beware of inside terms, which carry different meanings within an organization than in the common language. Specialties

"Special" knowledge is a particular problem. This is when a specialty such engineering or physics, has accepted and universally understood principles which can be used as metaphors within a presentation. These metaphors will be, at best, babble to an uninitiated audience. If such metaphors are planned to be used, make sure that the target audience is familiar with that information. Contractions

Contractions and acronyms are always dangerous. AMA can mean: (1) The American Medical Association, (2) The American Management Association, or (3) The American Marketing Association, among others. Such contractions are very prevalent. If used, they should be defined careful and frequently.

9.3.9 On Power

Power is yours to lose. You automatically start a presentation with power. What you do visually and verbally determines whether or not you maintain it or lose it. Power of the Chalk

The very position in front of the audience conveys vast power over the time frame of the presentation. Either by training or by instinct an audience gives authority to the speaker. This happens automatically. The speaker need not demand it. Keep to Your Expertise

The easiest way to lose power is to sway from your expertise. The subject that you are speaking on is usually one that you know better than almost anyone else in the audience. Keep to it. Don't Try to Impress

Your position gives you power. Your style gives you credibility. If you have good material, you need nothing else. Do not try to embellish or explicitly impress. Your professional performance will do that. Trying to explicitly impress is more likely to reduce the professionalism of the presentation.

9.3.5 Rehearse

Rehearsing and practicing are very useful. It allows you to test the flow and builds confidence. Try It Out Alone

Going over the presentation in your mind is also useful. Be aware though that it can result in a desire to increase the size of the presentation. Try to avoid that by continuously looking for what can be pulled out. Try Out on Colleagues

Have colleagues or individuals familiar with the audience review the presentation (or at least the visuals). Dry Runs

If feasible, do a dry run or two with colleagues and with a "naive" audience to test communications as well as timing. Actively review with the audience what was communicated and how they responded "emotionally" to the presentation. Don't Over Do It

Rehearsals and dry runs can be overdone. There is a degree of spontaneity that enhances presentations. Excess practice tends to reduce spontaneity and increases anxiety.

9.4 Visual Aids

Visual aids can greatly improve a presentation. Almost all business and management presentations, today, rely heavily on visual aids. However, they should be prepared carefully and with an emphasis on quality.

9.4.1 Redundancy

The purpose of a visual is to reenforce the spoken message. It is a restatement of the message. We use both the visual and the auditory sensory modes to communicate the message. It is important to recognize that redundancy is critical for learning. Any effective presentation will utilize a number of redundant and repetitious processes to reenforce the message and to assure that the message is received.. Audience Attention Span

Audience attention is never undivided. People can only give attention over a series of short time spans. People's minds natural wander. Average undivided attention spans are often quotes of 30 seconds or less. Getting Attention

A major function of the visuals is to bring the audience back to the presentation. It is a continuous process of regaining attention. Because of the redundancy in any presentation, the periodic loss of attention is less of a problem as long as attention is quickly returned to the presentation.

9.4.2 Focus

All points are not created equal. Another function of the visuals is to provide a means of focusing on the key points. Change is the Key

Change in style and change in color provide focus and maintain attention. It is the change that provides the stimulation not necessarily what that change is. Viewers are highly sensitive to change. The use of the most elaborate charts will become boring if overly consistent.

"Foolish consistency is the "hob-goblins of little minds." Distraction

Overly elaborate charts are distractive. The advent of computer aided graphics has created the potential for over- using color and design in charts. The purpose of the chart is to convey a message. If the chart is too elaborate, it will distract from the message. The form of the chart may be remembered but the message may not be. It would more effective to use color sporadically to "punctuate" an important component of the presentation.

9.4.3 Need for Control

The nature and use of the visuals can help speakers maintain control. Questions can be suppressed or solicited by the nature of the visuals. Formal visuals restrict interruptions, but will also limited the volunteering of ideas or the buy-in to concepts.

9.4.4 Design Principles

The key objective of visuals is to provide an aid to memory and to reinforce the spoken comments. Information Overload

The function of the visuals is supportive. Too much information at any one time is likely to confuse the audience and distract them from the key message. Pace the visual to provide only that information needed at that point in the presentation. "Chunking"

Visuals are excellent in grouping information and providing the "chunks" which can be handled. Remember the audience can only handle a small amount of information at a time. Optical Quality

Clear, crisp, high contrast images are remembered best. Fuzzy lines, poor registration and pastel colors reduce the impact and value of a visual. Clutter

Clutter reduces focus and impact of any visual. Keep the visuals simple. Keep the information focused. Information Association

The less work that a viewer must do to understand the visual the better. In this regard, the set of visuals should be viewed as a whole or as a series. Difference among charts should reflect differences either in information or for impact. Common Scales

Use common scales in graphs. Common units should be employed. And where feasible, use the same type of graph if items are to be compared. Familiar Scales

Avoid complex or unfamiliar scales if feasible. Logarithmic scales should be avoided unless critical to the analysis or the message. Special scales, including logarithmic scales can be used if:
  • They represent an unique type of analysis that must be shown, or
  • As a means of greatly simplifying the presentation of data

An example would be where data cover many order of magnitude. Graphic Features

Psychological research has indicated that there is a difference in quality of perceived data using various graphical tools. These are ranked as:

  1. Position along a common scale
  2. Length
  3. Area
  4. Volume
  5. Color Hue and Density Chart Type Selection

There is a broad range of chart types that are available using business and scientific graphic packages. Select the type that simply conveys the message and is traditional for the information. The varying ability of graphic features to convey accurate measures indicates a "natural" desirability of chart types ranked in the following order: bar charts, line charts, pie charts, then area charts (all other considerations being equal). Perspective Mania

Perspective bar and pie charts look good but are prone to misinterpretation and optical illusion. They imply a volume measure which is difficult to perceive and often inaccurate. Try to avoid using them. Color

Color also produces problems in reproduction. Color should only be used as a supporting device. The monochrome images should convey all necessary information. Bar charts, for example, should use cross-hatching as well as color to identify bars. The Added Color

Advertising research has shown that a single additional color can give equal impact as multiple colors. In many cases, limited color use can be more effective than full color. Impact of Color

Color can be used to add impact. Use complementary colors to enhance contrast if multiple colors are called for: Red and Green or Orange and Cyan (Blue-Green). Avoid Yellow.

Too much color can be distracting. Keep added color simple. Note that color can also create optical illusions. For example, red areas will tend to look larger than blue. So, be careful. Use of Color

Color is best used to indicate categories of information rather than a scale. There are some "natural" or expected uses of color, which should be maintained. Losses are generally shown in red for example. These conventions should be maintained.

9.4.5 Overheads Preparation

The following comments refer to the preparation of overhead transparencies. The maximum image size for 35 millimeter slides and video monitors is less than one half the maximum size for overheads. Consequently, slides and videos should have half as much material per image as do overheads. Regardless of media, only one graph or image should appear on a single page. Number of Visuals

Each overhead transparency should require at least two minutes of explanation, on average. Under this condition, a 20-minute talk should have no more than 10 visuals. As previously mentioned, 35 millimeter slides tend to be smaller and require less time for explanation per slide. More slides may be used, therefore, than with overhead transparencies. Charts & Comments

All elements included on visuals should be commented on. It is inappropriate to include items on the visuals without bringing them to the attention of the audience and discussing them. Backup Charts

Backup overheads should be prepared for key questions or if further "technical" details are likely to arise during subsequent discussions. Readability

The ability to read the information easily is critical for all visuals. No member of the audience should have difficulty reading the charts.

Typographic and graphical errors can be annoying to the audience and care should be taken to catch and eliminate all errors. Font Size

For overhead transparencies, 24-point type is recommended. Avoid using type smaller than 18 point under all circumstances. Font Face

A clean simple font face is recommended. Swiss, Arial, Presentation, and Helvetica font faces produce quality transparencies. Simplicity

Keep the images simple. Complex images or those with multiple meanings are difficult to read and understand. Avoid unnecessary adornments on the visuals. Empty Space

Empty space aids readability. It is better to add an additional chart than to squeeze too much information onto one visual. Impact

Impact is the ability of an image or message to be remembered. Since only a small number of concepts are to be conveyed to the audience, the impact of the presentation should be tailored toward those concepts. Not all visuals should, therefore, be designed for maximum impact. Simplicity

Simplicity aids impact. Simple, unadorned images convey single strong messages. Quality Production

Word processing and the use of graphic packages add to the quality of the visuals and their impact. Avoid hand drawn or conventionally typed visuals. Sentence Fragments

Full sentences do not have to be used. Short single phrases, clauses, or even words can convey the meaning. For the most part, visuals are not designed to stand-alone. They are meant to invite explanation. Short phrases add impact to the visual. Slick

Limited use of slick visuals can be effective to maintain audience attention. However, they must be used sparsely.

9.5 Introduction to the Presentation

The attention of the audience is limited. The purpose of the introduction is to attract and keep the audience's attention. The goal of the introduction is to orient the audience to what is to be covered.

9.5.1 Getting Attention

The trick is getting the audience's attention. Be prepared to start the presentation immediately. All preparations should be made before the presentation starts. Delays while notes are arranged, visuals positioned, or visual aids are focused, diffuses attention, diminishes power. These activities should be avoided.

9.5.2 Good Humor/Bad Humor

Humor is a highly useful technique for both the introduction and during the presentation. It raises attention, stimulates creative thought and gives license for subsequent participation.

Humor, however, can be disruptive and irritating. Bad jokes can be offensive, even when they are not meant to be. The humor must be well targeted to the subject and have a specific point. Ethic and religious humor must be avoided under all circumstances.

9.5.3 Keeping on Target

Keep the introduction on target. Do not sacrifice subject and continuity for the desire to attract attention. The attention has to be maintained. A disconnected introduction will not easily allow for movement into the body of the presentation.

9.5.4 An Agenda

The introduction should provide an agenda of what will be covered. That agenda forms a summary of the concepts that are to be covered.

9.6 Physical Presence

Physical presence and bearing can convey confidence, conviction, enthusiasm and naturalness to the speaker. Nervousness from either external pressures or internal anxiety can adversely affect the impact of the presentation.

9.6.1 Releasing Energy

Channeling the nervous energy into creative direction can be critical for an effective presentation.
  • Overcome the "flight" instinct.
  • Direct energy to the upper body through:
    • Facial Expressions
    • Head Position
    • Voice (Volume, modulation, and inflection)
    • Using natural and expressive arm and hand gestures
  • Release the energy positively:
    • Keep a High Energy Level
    • Be Exciting
    • Be Physical
    • Project to those farthest away visually and vocally.

Loyalty, integrity, conviction, credibility, dedication, and confidence are created by physical, visual and vocal excitement. Non-verbal communications are critical to convey emotional information.

9.6.2 Relax and Enjoy

The presentation experience can be exciting and enjoyable. Relax and enjoy it. The process of relaxing will usually produce a better presentation. The "Don'ts" of presentations are usually caused by nervousness which relaxation will eliminate:

  • Don't be frozen
  • Don't be tentative
  • Don't hide (usually behind the podium)
  • Don't walk off energy
  • Don't plan gestures (Contrived, Artificial, and Unnatural)
  • Don't stifle arms and hands

Other don'ts: Hands in pockets, fiddling with change, holding something in your hands for security, arms crossed, hands together (in prayer, "the executive fig leaf", or wringing hands)

9.6.3 Eye Contact

"One-on-one" eye contact conveys a personal communication with each member of the audience. It reduces external pressure and establishes personal rapport with the audience. Technique

Developing good eye contact control requires conscious effort and practice.
  • Establish eye contact with one person during a pause.
  • Hold eye contact while delivering a thought (5 seconds)
  • Break eye contact during the next pause and
  • Establish eye contact with another person in another section of the audience during that pause.
  • Repeat throughout the talk. Don'ts

  • Don't shift eyes too rapidly (less than 5 seconds);
  • Don't shift eyes to floor, walls, or ceilings when stopping to think;
  • Don't read your presentation;
  • Avoid using notes.
  • 9.6.4 Pauses

    Don't let pauses panic you. Pauses communicate confidence and control of the audience.

    9.6.5 Being Assertive

    Assertiveness conveys confidence in yourself and your material. It also conveys credibility. It is critical that you always convey these qualities to the audience. The position of speaker gives you power. Assertiveness exercises that power. Being Provocative

    As previously noted, position gives power, but that power should rarely be used to attack members of the audience, either directly or by inference. Ideas are often held personally. Attacking ideas directly can convey a personal attack even if it is not intentional. Being provocative does increase assertiveness, does increase attention, and does produce a type of engagement. However, provocation also produces a negative atmosphere to the presentation that is difficult to recover from.

    9.6.6 Using Visual Aids

    The goal of using visual aids is to assist in the presentation. You do not wish the process of using visual aids to detract from the presentation nor for you as the speaker to detract from the visual. Position Yourself

    Center yourself in front of the group. Place the visual aid to your left. Make sure everyone can see the visual. Use the Visual Aid

    Direct attention at the visual where and when you want the audience to focus their attention. Lighting

    Keep as many lights on as possible when using slides or overhead transparencies. Reduced lighting generates reduced attention. Talk only to the Audience

  • Don't talk to the visual;
  • Don't talk with you back to the Audience;
  • Don't talk without eye contact.
  • Don't Skip Through the Visuals

    The visuals tell a partial story, not the whole story. Each visual should be explained as it is shown. Avoid giving a slide show of just images. Get Rid of the Aid

    Cover, remove the visual and turn off the projector when you are finished with it. You want the attention back on you.

    9.6.7 Dress to Kill

    The first thing the audience will see and the last is you. That impression may last longer than what you say. Select the image that you wish to represent you. Clothes

    Appropriate dress is required. The level of formality is usually dictated by the occasion. Generally, the speaker's attire should be at least as formal as that of the audience. Dressing significantly different from what is expected may distract attention from what is being presented.

    Your garments should be neat, fresh, and preferably new or newly cleaned and pressed. The choice should be conservative in style and color (dark blue and grays are always acceptable).

    [John T. Molloy, Dress for Success] Grooming

    Neat! Neat! Neat! Hair, nails, and make-up. For women, make-up to your age, generally err on the side of too little rather than too much make-up. Avoid heavy eye shadow and blush. Posture

    Don't slouch Be Fresh

    Get a good night's sleep before the presentation. Pick your best time to talk, if possible. For example, if you are a morning person try to schedule your presentation in the morning.

    9.7 Closing/ Questions & Answers

    The purpose of the question and answer segment is to assure that the subject was communicated clearly and to provide feedback. Particularly, for meetings where exchange of information is sought, the question and answer period can be as important as the presentation itself.

    9.7.1 Prepare the Audience

    Close the presentation with a summary. Humor can be useful in closing a presentation since it raises attention and gives license to the audience to participate.

    Invite questions to get the question and answer dialogue started.

    9.7.2 Generating Questions

    There is often a resistance of the audience to asking questions. This is due to:
  • Abrupt change of roles;
  • Size of the audience is intimidating;
  • Audience was not interested in the talk;
  • Audience did not understand the talk.
  • It is often desirable to get questions started. Ask Questions of the Audience

    Questions can be asked for the audience. The intent of these questions is to solicit responses and produce a participating audience role. For example, one can solicit reaction to specific points in the presentation. Be careful not to ask questions that generate speeches. You will wish to maintain control during this part of the presentation. Plant Questions

    Planting questions with friendly members of the audience is a traditional way to get started in questions and answers. While this can be effective, care should be taken to assure that these questions are not trivial or contrived. Sticking Out the Wait

    Stick out the wait between questions. Usually someone will eventually ask a question.

    9.7.3 Answering Questions

    The key problem of answering questions is maintaining control while supporting participation of the audience. Listen

    • Think only of the question (not the answer) when it is being asked. It is often simpler than you might take it to be.
    • Hold eye contact with the questioner when he is speaking. Rephrase

    Rephrasing the question allows the audience to hear the question. It usually enriches and clarifies the question for the entire audience. It also gives you more time to think of the answer. During rephrasing, establish eye contact with other members of the audience besides the questioner. Answer

    Direct the answer to others in the audience, not the questioner. This makes the audience involved and interested. Keep the answer short Don'ts

    • Don't bluff an answer, admit you don't know or suggest that you will get the answer.
    • Don't end the answer in eye contact with the questioner. That invites another question from him.
    • Don't ask for approval of your answer (i.e. Does that answer your question?) Questioners are rarely total satisfied. Further conversations with the questioner will result in a one-on-one dialogue and loss of control.
    • Don't criticize the questioner. Ask for clarification if necessary.
    • Don't lose you cool. Avoid eye contact with irritating members of the audience. Rephrase and answer their question while maintaining eye contact with other members of the audience.

    9.7.4 Handling Challenges:

    Maintaining control is the most difficult problem during challenges from the audience. The key is to not lose your cool or get emotional. In many cases, the challenge is not intended, but is a poorly expressed question. Even if the challenge is meant, handling it as a question can defuse the problem. Accusatory Statements and Questions

    • Listen without responding to the emotionalism;
    • Don't repeat hostile words when rephrasing;
    • Accept the question or statement by rephrasing it to the audience;
    • Answer the rephrased question to the audience, not to the questioner. Questions on Your Premise

    The purpose of your response is to support your premises. The audience is usually able to judge the quality of your position. Keep in mind that the speaker has control and usually has an implied credibility to give weight to his position.
    • Use evidence to support your position;
    • Evidence (not option) allows the audience to accept your position. The Interrupters

    There are at least two types of interrupters: (1) during the presentation and (2) during the question and answer session. These interruptions may not be intended as a challenge but as expressions for clarification. During The Presentation

    The acceptability of interruptions during the presentation depends on the formality of the talk, the culture of the group, and the importance of the interrupter. When interruption is acceptable, as in the case of informal presentations or when asked by the key participant, the question needs to be answered.

    In many cases, the answer to the question is included in subsequent material. If so, rephrase the question, give a short response as an acknowledgement and make reference to the upcoming information. Identify the material when you reach it later in the talk.

    If the question is not relevant to the presentation, rephrase to acknowledge the question and suggest that you discuss it after the talk.

    If such interruptions are not generally acceptable:

    • Respond to the question;
    • Announce that subsequent questions should be written down and asked after the presentation. During The Question and Answer Session

    Interruptions take place when a questioner will not allow you to finish one question at a time.
    • Generally, you can accept the second question but noting that it is difficult to answer two questions at the same time.
    • Answer the first question after rephrasing to the audience.
    • Then rephrase the second question and answer it.
    • Do not recognize the questioner. That might invite a rapid third question.